S106: Post-War Army Plans (Officers and EM)

To determine what white troops both within Continental limits of the United States and overseas were thinking with regard to their post-war plans. The areas covered included: education, faming, migration, jobs - private and government, and Army career.

a. The original focus of the study was directed toward estimating the proportion of soldiers who were planning definitely to stay in the Army, and of ascertaining the backgrounds and characteristics of such men. Since a soldier's decision to remain in the Army would in many instances be dependent on the materialization of various contingencies, a set of questions was designed to give a scale relative to desire to remain in the Army after the war. This permitted some estimation of the proportions and characteristics of men who might under certain conditions decide to remain, although it was doubtful whether any direct prediction of the proportion who would remain under a certain stated contingency would be warranted.

b. Early in the course of pretesting, it was found that the presentation of various alternatives to staying in the Army reduced considerably the proportion of men who said, in answer to a direct question, that they thought they would stay. Therefore, a set of questions dealing with general job plans, including plans to return to previous employment, plans to attend school, open a business, etc., was developed.

c. At this stage, a request was received from the Department of Agriculture to ask several questions about the specific job plans of men who had worked on farms. A set of questions was developed in discussions with the interested persons in Agriculture.

d. A series of questions relating to expectations of interstate migration was included in the questionnaire, not so much for the purpose of predicting migration after the war (since an unknown economic situation will probably be the prime determinant of such migration), as for the purpose of estimating the prevalence of a desire to migrate. These data afforded some checks on the realism of certain occupational choices, particularly where farming was concerned, and gave some indication of regional trends to be anticipated in the absence of certain economic and social checks.

e. Questions on attitude toward government jobs were included in order to get some notion of the amount of pressure on such jobs which might be expected to materialize.

Analysis of the data obtained from cross-sectional surveys of troops in the United States, Central Pacific Theater and European Theater of Operations gave a fairly good basis of generalization to the Army as a whole, except as combat troops might have a different slant on what is coming to them after they are discharged.

f. The method of analysis attempted to isolate and characterize:

  1. Those individuals who have specific job plans of one sort or another which they expect to be able to carry out
  2. Those individuals who have leanings one way or another but were uncertain as to specific job plans
  3. Those individuals who simply do not have any real plans for the future

g. The questionnaire has six different forms: one for each theater and U.S., and a separate one for enlisted men and officers. These are identified in the following way:

  1. Enlisted forms:

    a) S-106 E: United States’ form

    b) S-106 ETO: European Theater of Operations’ form

    c) S-106 H: Central Pacific Area’s form

  2. Officer forms:

    a) S-106 O: United States’ form

    b) S-106 O ETO: European Theater of Operations’ form

    c) S-106 O H: Central Pacific Area’s form

Questionnaire

Date

Jun '44

Original Size

24,863

Location

US, ETO & Central Pacific

Alternate Title

Postwar Job Plans of White Officers and EM

Sample Description

A total of 20,064 enlisted man and 4,799 officers from Continental United States, the European Theater of Operations, and the Central Pacific Area are included in this study.

Sample Method

A total of 20,064 enlisted man and 4,799 officers from Continental United States, the European Theater of Operations, and the Central Pacific Area are included in this study.

The United States enlisted sample is a representative cross-section of the Army drawn from 11 AG & ASF installations and 4 Air Fields. Both divisional and non-divisional troops from ground forces are represented in proper proportions; similarly, are station complement troops and other ASF troops in Army Service Forces. In the Air Corps, both men under training commands and not under training commands are included in the sample.

The total United States officer sample was drawn from the same camps (but one) as the enlisted sample. It is not representative of all officers in the U.S. at the time of the study, but a sub-sample of this was so selected as to yield a representative sample of officers in the U.S.

The ETO sample is not a cross-section of all troops in the ETO. It includes only Medium and light Bomber groups and Fighter groups from the 9th Air Force as its Air Corps sample, and it contains only small samples of white and Negro S.O.S. troops for its non-Air Corps sample.

The CPA sample contains men from all branches of service but whether or not these are representative of troops in CPA is not known. Except for one heavy bombardment group, all men in the sample were taken from the island of Oahu.


a. The study contains the following 12 samples:

  1. Officer samples

    World-wide cross-section: 2,104 cases; can be identified by “X” punched in Col. 80. United States cross-section: 1,175 cases; can be identified by "X" punched in Col. 80 for cross-section and multiple punch 1,0,6 in Col. 79 for U.S. sample. United States total sample: 2,350 cases; can be identified by 1,0,6 punched in Col. 79 for U.S. sample. ETO cross-section sample: 269 cases; can be identified by "X" punched in Col. 80 for cross-section and "Y" punched in Col. 79 for ETO sample. ETO total sample: 1,396 cases; can be identified by “Y” punched in Col. 79 for ETO sample. CPA cross-section sample: 660 cases; can be identified by "X" punched in Col. 80 for cross-section and "X" punched in Col. 79 for CPA sample. CPA total sample: 1,053 cases; can be identified by “X” punched in Col. 79 for CPA sample.

  2. Enlisted Men’s samples

    United States cross-section sample: 10,599 cases; this is the total sample from U.S., can be identified by 1,0,6 multiple punched in Col. 79. ETO sample of AAF Enlisted men: 2,627 cases; can be identified by "Y" punched in Col. 79 for ETO sample and “X” punched in either Cols. 1 or 5 for Air Corps. ETO sample of S.O.S Negro Enlisted men: 508 cases; can be identified by "X" punched in Col. 79 for ETO sample and an even number in Col. 1 for Negro. (There will be no “X” punched in either Col. 1 or 5). ETO sample of S.O.S. White Enlisted men: 1,644 cases; can be identified by "X" punched in Col. 79 for ETO sample and an odd number punched in Col. 1 for white. (There will be no “X” punched in either Col. 1 or 5). CPA sample of enlisted men: 4,686 cases; can be identified by “X” punched in Col. 79 for CPA sample.

[NOTE: The theater location of two questionnaires, Sp106O and Sp106E, are unknown and have been labeled pre-tests, as the free-response question that appears on the scanned archived microfilm, Q.37, does not match any of the six final field forms. The rank of the sample, "O" for Officers and "E" for EM, can be deduced from the content of the free responses. Additionally, S-106O appears on a microfilmed cover sheet that accompanied the series labelled here Sp106-O.]

Scales and Scores

a. Desire for Government Job - U.S. enlisted sample only - punched in second half of Col. 72

b. Desire for Post-war Schooling - both enlisted and officer samples in U.S., ETO & CPA - punched in Col. 73

  1. Desire to Return to Old Job - U.S., CPA & ETO enlisted sample - punched in Col. 74
  2. Desire to Own Business - U.S. & CPA enlisted sample - punched in Col. 75
  3. Desire to stay in Post-war Army - both enlisted and officer samples in U.S., CPA & ETO - punched in Col. 76
  4. Job Satisfaction - U.S. enlisted sample only - punched in Col. 77
  5. Old and New Army - Officer samples in U.S., CPA & ETO - punched in Col. 73 (wide cross section only).
  6. Theater identification punched in Col. 79 (X=CPA; Y-ETO; 106=U.S.)
  7. Air Corps gang punched "X” in Col. 80 in U.S. enlisted sample. In all remaining samples an "X" punched in Col. 80 stands for cross-section.

Location Details

Chanute Field, IL

Ft. Devens, MA

Hunter Field, GA

Ft. Monmouth, NJ

Brooke General Hospital, TX

Camp Cooke, CA

Camp Crowder, MO

Camp Ellis, IL

Camp Haan, CA

Camp Polk, LA

Camp Shelby, MS

Camp Silbert, AL

Camp Swift, TX

Camp Van Dorn, MS

Cooke, CA

Ft. Sam Houston, TX

Indiantown Gap Military Reservation, PA

Keesler Field, MS

Lincoln Army Air Base, NE

MacDill Field, FL

Pomona Ordnance Depot, CA

San Francisco POE (John T. Knight, Oakland), CA

Santa Ana Army Air Base, CA

Shelby, MS

Stoneman Port of Embarkation, CA

Field Personnel

Donald Griffin

Charles N. Elliott

George E. Cole

John Clausen

Eric E. Sundquist

Daniel F. Connell

Robert S. Wattles

Charles Kornheiser

Robert Ford

Study Analysts

Leta Adler
John Clausen
George Hausknecht
Abram Jaffe
Shirley Star
Edward Suchman
Seymour Wolfbein
Lyonel C. Florant

Origin

Hqs, ETO

Reports

B-120 Plans of White Enlisted Men for Business or Farms of Their Own After Leaving the Army

B-121 Post-war Educational Flans of White Enlisted Men

B-127a Plans of Air Force Personnel for Post-war Service

B-128 Post-war Migration Plans of Soldiers

B-129 Post-war Occupational Plans of Soldiers

B-130 Soldiers’ Plans to Own Businesses After They Leave the Army

B-130a The Problems of Predicting the Number of Veterans Who Will Have Businesses of Their Own After They Leave the Army

B-131 Soldiers’ Plans for Farming After They Leave the Army

B-132 Soldiers’ Plans for Government Jobs After They Leave the Army

B-133 Post-War Educational Plans of Soldiers

B-135 Reenlistment Plans of White Enlisted Men in the Army Air Forces

B-136 Plans of Company Grade Officers in the AAF to Remain in the Army

WST (Special Issue) Post-war Plans of the Soldier

WST #13 Soldiers' Post-war Employment Plans

Monthly Progress Report, Section 10, September 1944 Soldiers' Plans for Starting Own Enterprises

Monthly Progress Report, Section 10, Oct. 1944 Interest in Post-war Farming

Monthly Progress Report, Section 10, March 1944 How Many Men Plan to Return to School

Notes

Earlier pretest forms Sp-106A and Sp-106 A-1 were used a third pretest Sp-106C followed the B series outlined above. The data on these were not preserved (few cases) and this outline refers only to the B-series mentioned above.

Study Analysts [details]: Leta Adler (Government Jobs); John Clausen (Post-war jobs, farming, own business, etc.); George Hausknecht (U.S. sampling); Abram Jaffe (Post-war migration); Shirley Star (Post-war education); Edward Suchman (Post-war Army); Seymour Wolfbein (Post-war migration)

Nara Catalog

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35B
If some of your plans have been changed, what plans have been changed as a result of your Army service?
My plans have not been changed.
I was saving up all my money to go to a university. My high school education was fresh in my memory but three years in the army has changed my interests and my holdings have since been used up.
My engagement to my sweetheart and then marriage.
Earning capacity was cut. Also prevented marriage sooner. Had plans to buy a house and also expand in business.
I was planning on working for a while in the mill and then try to go farming for myself in a few more years from the time I started to work in the mill.
Have been interrupted from my job oflarge numbers of workers in the economics field but do not consider this more than temporary since I have the confidence that our democratic ways will prevail, and therefore I can continue in the post war era.
My plans have not been changed onlydelayed
every thing
first to be married second to increase my business
In the first place my sister had to take my place in the business and is leaving her with bad health.
Like most married men I hoped to carry on the 'tradition' of men. Would wish to have a family. I also am behind about 2 years in my musical studies. The war has also impaired my source of getting merchandise here (Antiques)
My plans haven't been changed.
First of all my advancement in theRlrd Co. Thin [Then], Inowas planning to get married, but somebody stole my girl!
by not being able to have a home for my wife and I. and also not being able to give her the things I want to. I believe we cauld be much happier If I wasn't in the army.
Stopped my chance of going ahead with my civilian job.
raising a family and finishing my education
I had started a dairy and by coming in the Army it left no one to carry on. I would like to get started again if possible.
None
I'd rather not mention the plans I had in mind to do before I entered the Army
It has made me want to better my position in life; Before I was content to more or less drift along.
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36
We would like you to use this page to write anything else you have to say on any of the following subjects: What you think you will do once you are discharged from the Army. What you would like to know about the post-war Army. How the Army has changed your plans for your life work.
As for the army changing my working plans after the war. I am not for sure. I was a Brick Mason after I stopped school for 2 yrs. I had pneumonia and was ill for some length of time, then I went into a shirt factory as a Stock Clerk & liked it very much. but in the Army I am an Artilary Mechanic. I hope I can get either job back after the war.
I am planning on returning to my job but I am afraid there will be no business left for me. When I closed shop a new man took my place and has worked at it for three years. He will refuse to give up my job or my business because he has a foothold and I have been forgotten. The drafting of me into the army for such a long time I feel has ruined my chances of regaining my former position in life.
If I can go back to any old job and earn a living by which I might help my parents spend they few remaining years of their life happy, that's all I ask.
I didn't mind being in the Army. The only regret is that I wasn't placed in the air corp. I did like to be a machanic[mechanic]on planes. I am in the Q.M. Bakery. I never was a baker and never will. When I get out of the army im going to take a vacation then find a job. As long
as I get paid right and the job is within reason. After I get rolling then I'll settle down. A nice wife who can cook and a home I always dreamed about.

I'd like to know if they'd draft us again if a war did start after this one was all over with.
I would like very much to have a business of my own. If that isn't possible and with the aid of the Fed. Government. I would like to enter some college to further my education.
Will go back to farming I have a nice farm waiting for me, I am not especially interested about the post war army. The army hasnt changed me plans for my lifes work at all only delayed them.
Prior to my induction I was well established in business making a comfortable living. After my release there is quite a possibility that I might encounter some difficulty establishing myself again in the same kind of business. However I'm hoping for the best.
Get back to work immediately and provide for my wife. To pick up the threads of life where I left off. Get set in business again and try to build it up. What the army is going to do for the discharged soldier and getting him rehabilitated once more. Men who became physically disabled should get first consideration in government positions provided his condition doesn't hamper him. For those who have lost their earning power completely the gov't should take care of such
so that the man won't feel he is a burden to those he loves. The men are giving lives & limbs for the preservation of the American way of life and should be repaid in some way for their sacrifices. As far as the army changing my plans for life work is concerned the army didn't affect that one way or another. People will always need heat and air conditioning is comparatively new. People like convenience and as long as there is that commodity my business will still be thriving. Tho the army has delayed my fulfilment of my dreams.
The army hasn't changed my plans for my life work. It has only delayed them for the time until the war is over. I'm 34 years old now and if the war goes on and on I still will be able to play music if the Army permits me to continue. I will not be dependent on the Army for my future as long as I am able when the War is over. If I should lose an arm or a leg or even some of my fingers, which is my living I
expect the Government of the U.S.A. to take care of me. I won't be able to perform with my profession as a cripple, therefore I expect to be kept for the rest of my life or until I can adapt myself to playing again. If I come out of this war able to perform my duties as a musician I will gladly forfiet everything the army owes me and still willing to help pay taxes which I expect to pay anyway to finance the next war to come. Why the next war because I think there would be another one in my life time. That's all Gentlemen.

God Bless all and may this war end sooner than we expect.
I think I will go back to farming that is dairy farming. I have been doing that kind of work all my life, except a few months of mill work. I like farming a lot better than any other kind of work that I have done in my whole life.
It is my belief that the war which dropped the whole world into its orbit, will have served to provide to us as a nation that wherever in my part of the world there is a democracy to link the democratic nations, then economic ____ and total war are the result. Therefore in view of this it will be the duty of all _____ who have served in a military capacity to affect the armed onslaught against democracy, to devote themselves to the _____ and expansion of its benefits those the means which have been in advantageous in the recent war.
I will go back home & take up where I left off in my business

If there will be compulsory service for men or women after the war is over How large will the army be The Army has not changed my plans for my lifes work only delayed them as long as I am
Will organize own company and go into business for myself.
I wonder why the Army can't give the men that are discharged a higher bonus, & it has caused me a divorce. Why cant your allotment be stopped when one that is married is getting a divorce & his wife liveing with some one else.
I would like very much to know what kind of Army we are going have after this war. I imagine it will be improved mechanically but how about for the mans side of it? Just what will he get out of it. The government ought to plan post war Education for the men in the Armed Forces.
The first thing I'll do after being discharged from the army is to go back to my place of business & then marry & have a home of my own & raise a family. I really don't know what I would like to know about the post war plans at the moment. Because I feel when a feller is in the army
that its not right to get marry & maybe sent away this& maybe never come back so I say to all those are single in the army to stay single for the duration
I would go home and relieve my sister from her job. So she could gain her health back if its possible.

I've sign a C.I.D. and he[here]I am back in service. With my feet getting worse every day. And doing nothing of good towards winning the war. I'm first class pattern maker by trade also would take a job at that, while we all still fighting for victory first
So my business would wait and my sister would carry on as best as she. I would try get a defense job during this crisis.
Once discharged from the Army I'll try to

in my former environment. Will be glad to find it all as when left off. Naturally any improvement will be welcome. However with all the "Hyenas" in the White House waiting to throw themselves on fallen prey which in this case I consider to be the presidency I hardly expect it to be any better than it was. This whole dickering about
not giving men - who's lifes fall daily & others whos life has been disturbed a chance in having their say in electing a President given already a vital indication as to the sincerity & patriotism of our law maker. Not unless senators & congressmen alike will know that they too stand to pay for any dealings with our enemies regardless of its character, will we have a sound and safe government for the people.
I would enter college upon completion of the war and to receive aid from the Government in the payment of tuition is a big incentive. An educational program with Government support would not only be a good thing to help the individual but a national advancement.
Once I am discharged from the Army imditialy go into business of my own and live happily ever after if another damn war doesnt pop up.
My moral is gone to the dogs. Honest there isn't any thought in my mind that I will get some were in this army. Yes I worked hard but what good dose it do. Why even me speaking this way wouldn't amount to a flicker. In general I think its a grand idea but I really couldn't ans. these qustion
honestly.

For an example, there are approximately 250 men in out outfit and no matter how much you work you can bet your live that the next buck sgt. is made a staff on a. They did that for at least 5 months or more, that I've been in. I really can say I may be foolish in making these statements but I really like to let you know my feelings of my present being here as far as moral goes it doesn't amount to a darn. So now you see why & how I feel towards this present army life. It may not be the army life all over the world, but Blackstone Army Air Base has it's faults as I previously predicted. So I therefore wish this war would finish to an end so that we boys go home & make America better country in all this world, as it was before the war. Signed Pfc
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