S215: Methodological Study of Intensity Measurement

To throw light on the following problems:

a. Previous analysis had failed to disprove the hypothesis that any selection of questions concerning a single variable would yield the same zero-point, regardless of the marginals of the questions selected. It would follow from this that any two single variables which would scale together must have the same zero-point. Two variables were selected for this problem, which were felt would scale together, but which there was some reason to believe should not yield the same zero-point. The two scales used in this problem were:

  1. Attitude toward the Idea of the Army Score Card Plan Qs 6-7, 9-15).
  2. Attitude toward the Administration of the Army Score Card Plan (Qs 8, 16-19).

b. A second problem included in the study was: Will a series of “biased” (i.e., one-sided) questions yield a different zero-point than a series of “unbiased” neutral questions? The scale used in this problem was:

  1. Attitude toward the WAC

    a) Form A: A series of one-sided “agree-disagree” statements (Qs. 47-53), two leading questions with unbalanced check lists (Qs. 54-55) and a neutral question (Q. 56).

Intensity was measured for the “agree-disagree” questions as both strength of feeling and degree of certainty, simultaneously. This was to permit a double measure of intensity.

b) Form B: A series of neutral questions, containing balanced checklists. (Qs. 53—59)

c. A third problem covered in the study was this: Is there a zero- point in the psychoneurotic inventory? How does this zero-point compare to the present cutting point for screening psychoneurotics? A zero-point would mean that we could speak of psychoneurotics vs. ross, while the absence of a zero-point would mean degrees of psychoneurosis only.

The scale used was the psychoneurotic inventory. This is in the B form only (Qs. 38-52). The intensity was measured as difficulty of choice.

d. And finally, the following four problems were also covered:

Note: Previous analysis of the zero point had been based upon samples of 300 cases. These small samples did not permit the study of the problems discussed below.

  1. How reliably can the zero-point be determined from an analysis of only respondents with low intensity (or equal positive and negative intensity)
  2. How does the zero point vary with different subpopulation. For example, can uneducated respondents understand what is wanted by the questions on intensity? How does the zero-point shift in subgroups with different degrees of favorableness? How well can one control on “general” intensity?
  3. To what extent can the zero point be determined from only one or two questions with five category content and intensity checklists?
  4. How sensitive to sampling error is the zero point? Do deviations of the medians from the hypothesized curves disappear with large samples?

Questionnaire

Date

Jun '45

Original Size

3,615

Location

US

Sample Description

a. A total of 3,615 white enlisted men.

  1. Form A: 1,849 enlisted men

  2. Form B: 1,755 enlisted men

b. The sample included Returnees and ZI men, hospital patients, permanent party men, trainer, and trainees in 4 ASF, 2 AGF, and 2 AAF installations in Eastern United States.

Sample Method

See Planning Survey II for standard operating procedure.

Scales and Scores

a. A Form Card I & II Combined:

  1. Aggression against Army (Intensity) (Qs. 26b, 28b, 29b, 30b, 31b, 33b, 34b, 35b, 36b, 37b) punched in Col. 70
  2. Aggression against Army (content) (Qs. 26a, 28a, 29a, 30a, 31a, 33a, 34a, 35a, 36a, 37a) punched in Cols. 72-73
  3. Attitude toward WAC (FOB Intensity) (Qs 47a-b, 48a-b, 49a-b, 50a-b, 51a-b, 52a-b, 53a-b, 54a-b, 55a-b) punched in Cols. 74-75
  4. Attitude toward Idea Score Card (Content) (Qs. 6a, 7a, 9a, 10a, 11a, 12a, 14a, 15a) punched in Col. 77
  5. Attitude toward Idea Score Card (Intensity) (Qs. 6b, 7b, 9b, 10b, 11b, 12b, 14b, 15b) punched in Col. 79
  6. Attitudes toward Administration of Army Score Card Plan (content) (Qs 8a, 16a, 17a, 18a, 19a) punched in Col. 78
  7. Attitudes toward Administration of Army Score Card Plan (intensity) (Qs 8b, 16b, 17b, 18b, 19b) punched in Cols. 79
  8. General Intensity (Qs 7b, 11b, 16b, 23b, 27b, 36b, 37b, 41b, 49b, 57b, 59b) punched in Col. 80

b. B Form, Card I & II Combined:

  1. Neuropsychiatric Inventory (15 item score) (Qs 38a, 39a, 40a, 41a, 42a, 43a, 44a, 45a, 46a, 47a, 48a, 49a, 50a, 51a, 52a)
  2. Neuropsychiatric Inventory (5 item score) (Qs 40a, 42a, 48a, 49a, 52a) punched in Col. 78
  3. Neuropsychiatric Inventory (6 item score) (Qs 39a, 41a, 42a, 44a, 46a, 52a) punched in Col. 79
  4. General Intensity (Qs 7b, 11b, 16b, 23b, 27b, 36b, 37b, 58b, 59b, 61b, 62b) punched in Col. 80

c. A & B Forms Both, Special Card A and Special Card B

  1. Aggression against army (content) (Qs 26a, 28a, 29a, 30a, 31a, 33a, 34a, 35a, 36a, 37a) punched in Cols. 13-14

  2. Aggression against army (intensity) (Qs 26b, 28b, 29b, 30b, 31b, 33b, 34b, 35b, 36b, 37b) punched in Col. 15

  3. Attitude toward idea score card (content) (Qs 6a, 7a, 8a, 9a, 10a, 11a, 12a, 14a, 15a) punched in Col. 16

  4. Attitude toward idea score card (intensity) (Qs 6b, 7b, 8b, 9b, 10b, 11b, 12b, 14b, 15b) punched in Col. 17

  5. Attitude toward Army Administration of Score Card Plan (content) (Qs 5a, 16a, 17a, 18a, 19a) punched in Col. 18

  6. Attitude toward Army Administration of Score Card plan (intensity) (Qs 5b, 16b, 17b, 18b, 19b) punched in Col. 19

  7. General Intensity (Qs. 7b, 11b, 18b, 23b, 27b, 36b, 37b, 41b, 49b, 57b, 59b) punched in Col. 20

  8. Attitude toward WAC (content)

    a) A Form (Qs. 47-55 a part) punched in Cols. 21-22

    b) B Form (Qs. 53-58 a part) punched in Cols. 21

  9. Attitude toward WAC-B (intensity)

    a) A Form (Qs. 47-49, 51-55 b part) punched in Col. 23

    b) B Form (Qs. 53-58 b part) punched in Cols. 23

  10. Attitude toward WAC – FOB (intensity)

    a) A Form (Qs. 47-55 a & b parts) punched in Cols. 24-25

    b) B Form (Qs 53b, 54-58 a & b parts) punched in Cols. 24-25

  11. Attitude toward WAC (Foldover Intensity)

    a) A Form (Qs 47-55 a part) punched Col. 26

    b) B Form (Qs 53-58 a part) punched in Col. 26

  12. Attitude toward conscription (content)

    a) A Form (Qs 57-61 a part) punched in Col. 29

    b) B Form (Qs 60-64 a part) punched in Col. 29

  13. Attitude toward Conscription (intensity)

    a) A Form (Qs 57-62 b part) punched in Col. 30

    b) B Form (Qs 60-64 b part) punched in Col. 30

d. A Form Only, Special Card A

  1. Job satisfaction (content) (Qs 38-45 a part) punched in Col. 27

  2. Job Satisfaction (intensity) (Qs 38-45 b part) punched in Col. 28

  3. Job Satisfaction

    a) Privates only (Qs 39-44 a part) punched in Col. 35

    b) Noncoms only (Qs 38-44 a part) punched in Col. 35

e. Form Only, Special Card B

  1. Psychoneurotic Inventory (intensity) (Qs 38-52 b part) punched Cols. 31-32
  2. Psychoneurotic inventory (content) (Qs 38-41 apart, 42 a & b, 43-52 a part) punched in Cols. 33-34

Location Details

George Field, IL

Camp Pickett, VA

Indiantown Gap Military Reservation, PA

Study Analysts

Louis Guttman

Reports

C-135 Attitude toward Universal Military Training

D-1 Experiments on the Measurement of the Intensity Function and Zero Point in Attitude Analysis

Nara Catalog

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1
What is your Army rank or grade?
2
How old were you on your last birthday?
3
How far did you go in school?
4A
Have you served outside the continental United States in this war? Q.4b. If yes, have you been in actual combat in this war?
5
How long have you been in the Army? E. If you have been in the Army before, then were out for awhile, just check the length of time since you entered this last time. If you were in the National Guard, check the length of time since your outfit came into the Army.
6A
In general, what do you think of the Army Score Card Plan (the point system)?
6B
How strongly do you feel about this?
7A
Do you approve or disapprove of the Army Score Card Plan (the point system)?
7B
How strongly do you feel about this?
8A
When the Army Score Card Plan (the point system) gets going, do you think it will really be carried out in the way it is supposed to be?
8B
How strongly do you feel about this?
9A
If the Army Score Card Plan (the point system) is carried out in the way it is supposed to be, do you think it will give the men a square deal?
9B
How strongly do you feel about this?
10A
How satisfied are you personally with the Army Score Card Plan?
10B
How strongly do you feel about this?
11A
The Army Score Card Plan is based on what the soldiers themselves said. do you think it was a good idea or a bad idea to ask the soldiers themselves about which men should get out of the Army first?
11B
How strongly do you feel about this?
12A
How do you feel about the Army Score Card Plan as compared to some other plan that might have been used?
12B
How strongly do you feel about this?
13A
In your opinion, are there any things for which points ought to be given that are not used in the Army Score Card Plan?